Kinases & Phosphatases
Protein phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification (PTM) that acts as a molecular switch for many cellular events. The activation and deactivation of signaling pathways through phosphorylation by kinases or dephosphorylation by phosphatases are under delicate control.
Approximately one-third of proteins in the human proteome are presumed to be phosphorylated during their life cycle, accounting for an estimated 100,000 different phosphorylation sites. Protein phosphorylation often leads to structural changes which then affect protein functions by modulating protein folding, substrate affinity, stability, localization and activity. Notably, the majority of oncogenes identified so far are protein kinases, whose activity when dysregulated is related to the development of cancers.
CD BioSciences offers a complete portfolio of solutions to study protein phosphorylation including phosphorylation profiling, kinase/phosphatase identification, substrate identification, and inhibitor/activator screening.
Kinases and Phosphorylation
Examples: PI3K, Akt, mTOR, PKC, MAPKs, AMPK, CDKs, JAK.
A kinase is an enzyme catalyzing the transfer of phosphate groups from ATPs to other molecules, usually proteins on serine/threonine or tyrosine residues. The process is termed phosphorylation. About 500 protein kinases encoded by the human genome, accounting for 2% of human genes. Dysfunctions of kinases underlie many human diseases including developmental, endocrine and metabolic disorders, immunodeficiencies, as well as certain cancers.
Phosphatases and Dephosphorylation
Examples: Phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPPs/PPMs), Protein Tyr phosphatases (PTPs, e.g. PTEN).
A protein phosphatase (PP) is an enzyme catalyzing the removal/hydrolysis of phosphate groups from phosphorylated amino acid residues (Ser, Thr and Tyr) of proteins. The process is termed dephosphorylation. There are approximately 200 phosphatases in the human proteome. Since many kinases are oncogenes, phosphatases, counterbalancing the activity of kinases, are likely to act as tumor suppressors, such as PTEN. They are essential for brain function such as learning and memory. Dysregulation of PPs is associated with disorders inducing autoimmune diseases, cognitive ageing and neurodegeneration, as well as cancer, diabetes and obesity.
Solutions for Kinases & Phosphatases
CD BioSciences is dedicated to providing personalized solutions for you to study your kinases/phosphatases or signaling pathways of interest.
- Profiling global protein phosphorylation in a system (cells, tissues, etc).
- Detecting phosphorylation of proteins in specific signaling pathways.
- Determining the ratio of phosphorylated protein vs. unphosphorylated protein.
- Identifying substrate of certain kinases or phosphatases.
- Determining the phosphorylation sites on the substrate.
- Identifying kinases/phosphatases modifying certain proteins.
- Determining the catalytic site of kinases or phosphatases.
- Analyzing the structures of kinases or phosphatases.
- Screening for inhibitors or activators for kinases or phosphatases.
- Determining the thermodynamic parameters of the interactions.
CD BioSciences offers cost-effect, high quality and hassle-free kinases & phosphatases related solutions to our clients worldwide. We guarantee to deliver our products and results on time. Please feel free to contact us.
For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.