Immunology & Inflammation
Immunology studies the immune system which includes immune organs, immune cells, antibodies, and cytokines. It has a broad range of applications in medicine, particularly in the fields of organ transplantation, and oncology.
Inflammation is a defensive response against infections, injuries and toxins. Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for tumor development.
As a trusted CRO, CD BioSciences provides a comprehensive panel of solutions covering all aspects of life science research, including immunology and inflammation.
Overview of Immunology and Inflammation
Immunology is a very important branch of medical and biological sciences, which studies the physiological function of immune system in the states of health and disease. The immune system is made up of special organs, cells and chemicals to protect organisms from diseases. In many species, there are two major subsystems of the immune system: innate immune system and adaptive immune system, both of which use cells and molecules to perform their function. Malfunction of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer.
Inflammation, or inflammatory response, is a protective response induced by pathogens, infection or tissue damage. It is a generic response involving the coordinated communication of different immune cells through an intricate cascade of molecular signals; therefore, it is considered a mechanism of innate immunity. Chronic inflammation is associated with various diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.
- Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways
- JAK/STAT Signaling Pathway
- NF-κB Signaling Pathway
Toll-like Receptors (TRLs) are major pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) considered acting as sentinels against both invading organisms bearing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules released from injured cells. TRLs play crucial roles in innate immune responses. The signaling transduction of the TRL pathway can be dependent on Myd88 or TRIF to activate NF-κB and IRFs and induce appropriate immune responses.
The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, all of which are critical to immune development.
Several pro-inflammatory IL-family cytokines, including IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23, as well as IFN-γ, activate the JAK/STAT signaling pathway where phosphorylated STAT proteins become potent transcription factors to initiate the transcription of STAT-target genes. Disruption of JAK/STAT pathway activity causes diseases affecting the immune system.
Intracellular Signaling Pathways Mediated by JAK/STAT (Salas et al., 2020)
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors, including NFκB1 p50, NFκB2 p52, RELA (p65), RELB and c-REL, are critical regulators of immunity, stress response, cell differentiation and apoptosis. NF-κB activation occurs via two signaling pathways: the canonical and the non-canonical signaling pathways, which differ in both signaling components and biological functions.
Defects in NF-κB signaling are associated with severe immune deficiencies, whereas aberrant activation of NF-κB contributes to chronic inflammation, oncogenesis and autoimmune disease.
- Salas, A., Hernandez-Rocha, C., Duijvestein, M., Faubion, W., McGovern, D., Vermeire, S., ... & Casteele, N. V. (2020). JAK–STAT pathway targeting for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 17 (6), 323-337.
Solutions for Studying Immune Signaling Pathways
Our solutions for immunology research include but are not limited to the following.
- Regulator Identification
- Regulator Characterization
- Mechanism Study
- Phenotype Analysis
- Animal Model Generation
- Chemical Screening
Identifying gene regulators participating in immune signaling pathways.
Studying the molecular function of certain regulators in immune signaling pathways.
Investigating into the mechanism of regulation of certain regulators.
Analyzing the cellular phenotypes regulated by genes/proteins of interest.
Generating genetically engineered animal models for research use.
Screening inhibitors or activators of certain immune signaling pathways.
CD BioSciences offers cost-effect, high quality and hassle-free immunology related research solutions to our clients worldwide. We guarantee to deliver our products and results on time. Please feel free to contact us.
For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.