Cell signaling pathways allow cells to communicate with their environment. There are three stages in a cell signaling event: reception, transduction, response. Different signaling pathways control different cellular processes. But all signaling pathways share a common goal, that is, to generate appropriate cellular responses to accommodate environmental changes.
Studying cellular responses is to understand the ultimate outcome of a signaling transduction event. CD BioSciences offers a complete portfolio of solutions for studying cellular responses to signaling, covering gene expression, cell metabolism, cell growth and other cell behaviors.
Cellular responses can be analyzed on "micro" and "macro" levels, the former of which is on gene expression, the latter of which is on cellular activities, such as cell division, cell growth, metabolism, stress response and apoptosis.
Signaling pathways regulate gene expression transcriptionally through transcription factors (e.g., TFEB, NF-κB) or translationally through regulation of translation initiation factor (e.g., eIF-4E regulated by MAPK/ERK pathway).
- Determining how certain intercellular or extracellular signals affect gene expression by transcriptomic analysis.
- Determining the signaling pathways affected by intercellular or extracellular signals through gene ontology (GO) analysis.
It requires delicate regulation to maintain cellular metabolic homeostasis according to the constantly changing environment. Since changes in signaling pathways affect the expression of genes encoding metabolic enzymes, cellular metabolisms are controlled by signaling pathways.
- Determining how certain intercellular or extracellular signals affect cell metabolism through Metabolism Assays.
- Determining how certain signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of metabolism of certain micronutrients.
Cell signaling pathways play a major role in cell growth, usually referred to as cell preliberation. Growth factors promote cell growth through binding to and activating cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), which initiate signaling transductions.
- Detecting actively dividing cells and measuring the rates of cell proliferation through cell proliferation assay is part of our Cell Health Assays.
External stimuli put stresses on cells, such as thermal stress, oxidative stress, xenobiotic stress, proteotoxic stress, and osmotic stress. Stress response pathways sense cellular stresses and act out to restore cellular homeostasis.
- Determining the signaling pathways participating in certain stress responses.
- Detecting certain stresses and quantifying the level of stresses in cells through assays in our Cell Health Assays service.
Cells initiate programmed cell death, or apoptosis to eliminate redundant, damaged, or infected cells. Necrosis, another form of cell death, occurs after cell injury or under disease states. Both apoptosis and necrosis are processes regulated by signaling pathways.
- Detecting and quantifying the cellular events associated with programmed cell death including caspases through apoptosis and necrosis assay which is part of our Cell Health Assays.
Other Cell Behaviors
Cell behaviors describe how a cell functions internally and how it interacts with the surrounding environment.
- Determining how perturbations in a certain singling pathway affects cell behaviors such as motility, differentiation, angiogenesis through assays in our Cell Health Assays service.
CD BioSciences offers cost-effect, high quality and hassle-free cellular response related solutions to our clients worldwide. We guarantee to deliver our products and results on time. Please feel free to contact us.
For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.